There are tens of Node js frameworks available each overcoming a specific limitation of standalone Node package. Of course, all the frameworks I am going to mention here are available for download on your favorite package manager.
Express is the most popular Node js framework and a component of MEAN stack. A majority of full stack developers employ the Express framework to setup an HTTP server in Node js with easier to use, feature-rich Express APIs. Express APIs, essentially, add a set of additional features to already robust Node js API architecture without overriding it.
This may make you ask the question,“why is it still so popular?” The obvious answer is Express has its own little ecosystem of itself. That is a Node js developer can easily extend Express, which is itself an extension to Node, with an Express Framework framework like Kraken.js. Kraken.js isn’t the only one.
This level of extensibility has garnered Express.js support of major startups into mobile space: MySpace, PayPal, and Klout, which, gradually, led to wider developers’ and makers’ adoption and attention respectively.
What happens when one of the Fortune-500 companies turns up against the likes of Amazon and eBay on Black Friday to compete in online sale finds Express.js a little short of their expectations? It commissions Hapi.js, a Node framework that builds on the shortcomings of Express and shares the same codebase.
Hapi addresses the biggest shortcoming Express.js has that makes Express unsuitable for developing enterprise applications—the inability to split code into small chunks. Enterprise applications can go thousands of lines of code and are, generally, coded by distributed engineering teams. The inability to split codes into small chunks bounds achievable code distribution amongst teams or, in terms of enterprise developers, limits extensibility and maintainability.
Hapi.js is extendable with a rich set of plugins for adding enterprise functions to a Node application, including authorization, authentication, metrics, and logging. Hapi developers tend to focus more on writing reusable application logic than spending time building infrastructure. OpenTable, Macy’s, Condé Nast, and Disney are users of Hapi.js.
Koa.js is once again a Node js framework to build applications and APIs on. Koa is the brainchild of initial contributors to the Express.js project on GitHub. It works more or less like Express, except it uses generators to manage callbacks and is more tolerant to errors.
Developers developing applications that will generate too many callbacks can save many complications by choosing Koa over Express.js.
All the above Node js frameworks are great for building server applications but not creating complete web apps with frontend and backend. For building a web application, developers ask for MVC frameworks like Ruby on Rails or Laravel. Total.js is a sort of MVC framework that is built upon Node js like others in the list but provides approachable endpoints to integrate database and frontend technology of your choice.
The Node part of Total.js, in addition to a full web server, includes SMTP mail client, image processing algorithms and web socket among a few. At the time of writing, Total.js was compatible with Angular, Backbone, React, Ember, and of course, Bootstrap when it comes to front-end frameworks and MongoDB, CouchDB, PostgreSQL, SQLite and MySQL when it comes to databases.
The two chief ingredients of Sails.js are Express.js and Socket.IO. The ability to generate RESTful JSON models with support for WebSockets and HTTP makes Sails.js a perfect framework to write data-oriented and real-time applications like chat portals.
Meteor.js even has default elements for every component in its web development stack. Of course, they are interchangeable but this makes the framework less flexible.
Real-time Application Development
Derby is a special purpose Node framework for developing web applications to enable real-time collaboration. To enable collaboration between its users, DerbyJS has a dedicated data synchronization engine, Racer. Racer syncs data between users and makes real-time collaboration a possibility.
Also, DerbyJS is an MVC framework. That is, the view is updated every time the model changes. Also, DerbyJS applications are search engine friendly.
Socket.IO enables real-time communication in chat apps. It opens an event-driven, duplex communication between client and server. A WebSocket-compatible server,Socket.IO provides real-time collaborative features and analytics.
Socket.IO is platform agnostic and goes with almost every device, OS, or browser. One of its tops clients is Flightcar. FlightGear, as the name suggests, rents cars from the airport while traveling.
API Platforms/ Frameworks
LoopBack, along with the StrongLoop API platform, is a vastly extensible Node js API framework developed by IBM. LoopBack APIs connect devices and integrate Android and AngularJS SDKs for mobile app development.
When it comes to supporting for databases, LoopBack supports all major database systems: Oracle, Mongo, and SQL. StrongLoop is a special version of Node js and a stress-free API tool for Express professionals.
This fast, lightweight Node js server builds reusable, scalable API servers that are inter-compatible and are backward compatible. By using the same API code for HTTP and socket transports, it gives access to APIs and any static data on the server to an authorized client.
TaskRabbit and Samsung are two key Actionhero.js users.
Since most of the mentioned Node js frameworks are either based on Express or built by the same team, they share a lot of common features and, thus, give an easy switch to developers moving from one to another. A developer moving from Express to StrongLoop for developing an API server will only take a couple of hours to make the switch.
While I am not a big fan of opinionated Node js frameworks and would prefer lightweight Express with little additions, these MVC frameworks lets you build fantastic applications without paying too attention to setup and thus saving you a lot of precious time.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the best Node js frameworks used for development?
Express, koa, Meteor, Sails, Derby, Socket IO, Actionhero.js are some of the best and popularly used Node js Frameworks.
Why does Node js have so many frameworks?
Why is the Express framework still popular?
It is because Express has its ecosystem that lets a Node js developer easily extend Express, which is an extension to Node.
When can Node js be used?
Node js can be used as a backend technology for real-time applications, especially those involving collaboration, chatting, etc.